Apple IIGS

The original Apple II first rolled off the assembly line in 1978, and Apple offered only modest improvements for nearly a decade. While the IIc provided a new form factor, the introduction of the IIGS in 1986 took the Apple II family to another level.

While I remember a television ad or two, I never had the opportunity to use a IIGS in its prime. Only recently did I realize how capably it bridged the 8-bit and later 32-bit eras of home computing.  

After the collapse of the Lisa and Apple III (and with a sluggish start for the Macintosh), Apple begrudgingly advanced the Apple II platform. A new wave of personal computers emerged in the mid-80s that eclipsed the capabilities of the early 8-bit systems. IBM was moving to Intel’s 16-bit processor, but more importantly, Commodore released the Amiga 1000 and Atari the 520ST. Both computers were built around Motorola’s 68000 processor and were aimed squarely at the home market. While the Macintosh also used the 68000, Apple targeted that machine for businesses and higher education–and priced it accordingly.

Apple began working on a significant upgrade to the Apple II as early as 1983. Technical problems stymied the project’s original design, and complicating matters, Apple needed to avoid upstaging the Macintosh then in development. After the Macintosh and Apple IIc launched in 1984, work resumed on a computer that retained Apple II compatibility and provided more memory and improved graphics and sound. Apple used Western Design Center’s 65816 processor, as it was an evolution of the MOS 6502, but offered 16-bit registers while retaining extensive 8-bit compatibility. Paired with the impressive Mega II, which reduced the rest of the Apple II to a single chip, this new computer could run Apple II software and explore new opportunities.

In September 1986, Apple introduced the sleek IIGS. The 65816 was clocked at 2.8MHz. This was an improvement but far from state-of-the-art. The system had 256K of RAM but could be expanded to an impressive 8MB (later models shipped standard with 1.125MB). It also emulated all Apple II video modes but natively provided 320 x 200 and 640 x 200 resolutions with a 4,096-color pallet. The notable Ensoniq ES5503 wavetable sound chip (designed by Robert Yannes, the father of Commodore’s SID chip) was capable of synthesizing fifteen voices—a far cry from the Apple II’s simple beep.

The first 50,000 IIGS systems were “Woz” limited editions bearing Steve Wozniak’s signature on the front. In total, approximately 1.5M IIGS units were sold between September 1986 and December 1992.

This particular Apple IIGS was my first pickup using Facebook Marketplace. Lucky for me, a pleasant couple was preparing to downsize for retirement. This meant they needed to part with a sizeable collection of early ’90s Apple computers and related material. Several Macs appeared to be from a nearby university but based on the software, joysticks, and other material accompanying the haul, I could tell the IIGS had been a family mainstay in its day.

Since I had just worked on my Apple IIc, I was drawn to the IIGS. My first step was to open it up and survey the situation. Like all Apple II computers, the layout is simple. This IIGS was likely manufactured in late 1989. It is a ROM 3 model with 1.125MB of RAM installed on the mainboard. Doubling the ROM size from 128K to 256K allowed a portion of the OS toolset to be built-in, speeding up routine operations. It also added “sticky keys” to help disabled users press multiple keys, it enabled keyboard mouse emulation, and a few sound and graphics problems were resolved.

I was pleased to see that while the battery was installed, it had not leaked. And in another stroke of good fortune, the IIGS came with the desirable Apple Hi-Speed SCSI card. When connected to an external hard drive, the card can move data at up to 1MB per second.

I was hesitant to simply flip the power switch, so I removed the power supply and gave it a good look. Unlike most Apple II PSUs, this unit was not made by Astec. It appears an aftermarket MWP-303 had been installed. The PCB had some sticky residue, and there was oxidation around a few solder joints, so I cleaned it and checked the voltages.

Knowing that switching power supplies need a load to produce accurate voltage, I wired in a 100W 4 Ohm resistor. With this in place, I was able to verify the voltages were correct, and it was safe to power the computer.

The main body of the IIGS was a bit grimy, but nothing elbow grease couldn’t remove. I carefully inspected the mainboard. While computers of this era frequently have problematic electrolytic capacitors, these looked okay to me. So, I replaced the battery and focused on cleaning the surfaces, ports, and nooks and crannies.

I then turned my attention to the keyboard and mouse. The IIGS was the first computer to use Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) ports. Created by Steve Wozniak, the ADB connector would later become standard on Macintosh and NeXT computers. Similar to IBM’s PS/2 connector, it provided an easy way to connect input devices. However, unlike the PS/2 connector, devices could be daisy-chained together, and for some Macs, it supported a special key on the top of the keyboard that turned on the computer. With the IIGS, this key was used as the Apple II reset key.

The IIGS came with a wonderful compact keyboard. Using Alps orange switches, the keyboard feels and sounds fantastic. The keys have plenty of travel, and while it is not quiet, it’s not too loud either. I’d be tempted to get a conversion kit so I could use this as my daily keyboard.

Unfortunately, this Apple ADB keyboard didn’t work. After a thorough cleaning, I noticed only small solder pins held the ADB connector to the board. Figuring the connection was likely unstable after years of inserting and removing keyboards and mice, I took a shot and applied fresh solder where both plugs met the board. Thankfully, that’s all it took. The keyboard now works perfectly.

The ADB mouse was severely discolored and very dirty. I disassembled and cleaned it (including using a dental pick to remove grime from the inset Apple logo). I enjoyed seeing the simple spoked wheels and LEDs inside the mouse that tell the computer how the ball is moving in the socket. This technique had changed little from Bill English’s 1972 design.

I took this opportunity to try my hand with retrobrite. While I’ve watched many YouTube videos on the process, I hadn’t taken the plunge. While I suspect liquid hydrogen peroxide is better for larger parts, I only needed to tackle one very mustardy mouse. A few days earlier, I had watched a presentation by chemical engineer Scott Hansen at KansasFest 2020 on his new Retrobrite cream, so I decided to give it a try.

After covering the outside of the mouse with the cream, I sealed it in plastic wrap and placed it outside. After about three hours of morning summer sun (turning it several times for good coverage), it was done. The mouse looks great! I can see very faint streaking on the palm rest, but even if you were looking for it, it would take some effort to see it.

I also cleaned and serviced the 3.5-inch floppy drive. Aside from crusty black grease along the spindle rod, the mechanism appeared to be in good shape. Even the eject gears worked properly. I was worried because once reassembled, the drive would not read two disks I inserted that came with the system. However, I was able to format and read a new floppy. I’ll need to determine whether the media is faulty or if the drive is unable to read anything other than its own formatted disks.

Finally, I tackled the monitor. The IIGS came with the 12-inch AppleColor RGB Monitor. The screen can display a maximum of 600 x 200 lines at a 0.37 dot pitch. Importantly, it operates at a fixed 15.7 kHz horizontal scan rate. This places it in a unique class of monitor. Commodore, Tandy, and a few other manufacturers with color systems during this period synced at this low rate, but later VGA displays were synced at 30 kHz and higher. Given the rarity of such CRTs, I was pleased my IIGS had a working monitor… or so I thought.

Upon first testing, everything looked great. The colors were bright, and the screen was sharp and steady. However, after using the computer for a while, the screen would flicker and eventually go out. When the image disappeared, the front power indicator also went out, but even with my aging ears, I could hear the display’s transformers humming.

I opened up the case and safely discharged the anode and removed the cap from the tube. Then I carefully looked at the circuit boards. The neck board looked pretty good, but the bottom board was sticky and had quite a bit of oxidation on several solder joints, most likely due to heat from the transformers.

Given the condition, I decided leaky electrolytic capacitors were likely in play, so I ordered a capacitor replacement kit from Console 5. I also used the handy schematics provided by Console 5 to make my repairs. Along the way, I replaced a 2W resistor with a 3W metal oxide component that had a better chance of withstanding high heat.

After finishing the meticulous work, I was nervous to push the power button, but after a beer and some rest I hit the button… and it was dead. No image, no light, just as before, but now it was dark from the start and not after warming up.

So I went back and checked my work. Even though I thought I was careful, I found two mistakes on the neck board where I had switched the polarity on a set of capacitors and used a 1.0uF instead of 0.1uF component. Unfortunately, after repairing my mistakes, I was no better off.

Then I went back and looked more closely at something I noticed earlier. I observed a slight crack under the flyback transformer, but it didn’t appear to break the thick traces. Yet I finally saw that several of the solder joints had separated.

I had been looking at the neck board because I could hear the flyback transformer and the tube charging up and down when operating the power switch. I now realized the decoupled transformer pins powered the neck board, which controlled the RGB signals and the front power LED. After adding a considerable amount of new solder to each of the broken joints, I powered it up and was happy to see the power indicator shining brightly. But now the image had collapsed into a single horizontal line.

I was actually pleased to see anything on the screen, so I began researching how to fix a loss of vertical deflection. After posting a message on Twitter, @particlebbs made short work of my problem by asking if I’d bumped the neck board’s diagnostic switch. I learned the switch grounds the tube’s high voltage for safer repairs. Pulling the cover off again, I saw the plastic rocker switch was a little off-center. I flipped it securely into the middle position, and all was well.

I was finally ready to use this computer as Steve Wozniak intended, but I thought one upgrade might be helpful. As noted above, this Apple IIGS was a ROM 3 model with 1.125MB of built-in RAM. I decided to spring for another 4MB of RAM using ByteBooster’s expansion board. This upgrade will provide headroom for IIGS-specific software.

The system also came with an external Power User Pro enclosure with a SCSI Quantum ProDrive LPS drive inside. When the spinning drive fails, I will replace it with a SCSI2SD, but before then, I may install an IDE controller for compact flash storage or a BOOTI USB drive as internal solutions.

While perhaps I should replace all the capacitors on the IIGS and its power supply, right now, it’s running well. I’m looking forward to exploring what the IIGS can do. I’ll start by digging into the games made for the platform and deepen my knowledge of Apple II system software. I like having a computer that can run Apple DOS, ProDOS, and GS/OS. I’m also eager to take advantage of the IIGS’s fantastic keyboard with productivity apps like AppleWorks, Bank Street Writer, WordPerfect, etc. Finally, I’ll use my WiFiModem232 to access vintage BBSs across the Internet.

Oddly enough, spending time with the IIGS helps me better understand Apple’s intention for the Macintosh and some of the tradeoffs and ambitions that separate the two platforms. I may have missed it back in the ’80s, but I finally appreciate the underlying elegance of the Apple II line of personal computers. While the machines are relatively straightforward, the rich software library, crafted by devoted fans, makes this a fascinating platform.

Apple IIc

The Apple II is an 8-bit wonder and was Apple Computer’s first success. It was also arguably the first big hit of the personal computer revolution. Steve Wozniak famously hand-built the original Apple computer kit in 1976, then he and Steve Jobs became tech darlings after the introduction of the Apple II. Part of the “1977 Trinity” when introduced that year, the Apple II significantly outlived its contemporaries: the Commodore PET and TRS-80. Until discontinued in 1993, the Apple II line defined home computing.

I watched the Apple II from afar. I saw the ads and software reviews in magazines, toyed with one or two briefly in school, but I only had direct access to CP/M and DOS machines in the 1980s. I’m happy to rectify that omission with this lovely Apple IIc.

The Apple IIc was the fourth member of the Apple II line, introduced in 1984, a few months after the Macintosh. It was created during a tumultuous period in Apple’s history. The business-focused Apple III had flopped, as had the technically-sophisticated but troubled Apple Lisa. The Macintosh was the latest attempt to develop a hit on par with the Apple II.

In the early ’80s, Apple began to think about a portable Apple II. After seeing the advances of Toshiba and others, engineers began experimenting with a “book-sized” computer with a built-in disk drive. Once Steve Jobs was involved, he focused this compact Apple II (thus the “c”) on new computer users. Unlike other Apple II designs, the case would be closed and the most popular adds-on already installed. While the IIc could not be squeezed into a book-sized footprint, the case was sized to fit within a briefcase.

The IIc was the first Apple device to utilize the “Snow White” design aesthetics carried forward to the Apple IIGS, Macintosh SE, and Macintosh II family of computers. Sadly, it’s hard to find a IIc that has not color shifted from the original creamy white of “fog” to a jaundiced yellow.

Cover of the 16-page Apple IIc product brochure

The computer is powered by a variant of MOS Technology’s 6502 processor. Western Design Center (WDC) crafted the 65C02 as a low-powered chip that remained clocked at 1MHz. Apple hoped the lower-power would produce less heat within the confined case.

Out of the box, the IIc had the ability to display 80-columns of text, an internal 5.25-inch drive, a separate external drive connector, composite and RGB video connectors, two serial ports, and mouse/joystick support. It also came standard with 128K of RAM.

Priced at $1,295, customers did not appreciate the compact design as much as Apple hoped. The Apple IIe remained more popular. Perhaps customers feared the IIc was a lesser version of the original, linking it to the IBM PCjr, also introduced in 1984. The IIc was manufactured until 1988, when it was replaced by the 4MHz Apple IIc Plus (which survived until 1990).

I acquired this Apple IIc through Craigslist. It was a well-used household computer. I was blessed to acquire a full set up: computer, monitor, printer, mouse, joystick, disks, manuals, and necessary cables. Everything sat in boxes for many years, but the dust and grime were minimal.

The only IIc peripherals not included were an RF modulator, modem, paddles (hand controllers), the external Disk IIc, and the rare flat-panel display.

A nicely-maintained Apple IIc set up.

While inspecting my haul, I discovered this is an early IIc, manufactured around October 1984. The logic board and power supply looked good, and I was ready to power it on for the first time. I was pleased to hear the usual startup sounds and an amber Apple //c greeting me on the screen.

Inside the Apple IIc manufactured in autumn 1984
The Apple IIc is ready to go

The keyboard needed attention. While it worked, it felt terrible. Later IIcs came with a more robust keyboard and Alps switches, but these earlier models used Apple’s “hairspring” switches. These switches are not as nice as the Alps, but the biggest problem was the rubber mat installed between the keycaps and the switches. Meant to reduce spill damage, the combo rubber sheet had warped and deteriorated with age, now inhibiting the keys’ ability to bottom out when pressed. After removing and cleaning all the keycaps, I decided to remove the spill guard to improve the keyboard’s feel.

Early model IIc Atlanta Photocircuit keyboard with Apple “hairspring” switches

With the computer itself squared away, it was time to slide a disk into the 5.25-inch drive and see how the Apple II operated. However, I was frustrated to find the disks were not readable. I tried several, and after each, the IIc responded with a “Check Disk Drive” message. I have bad luck with floppies, so I went about my usual practice of opening the drive, cleaning it, lubricating the metal rails and contact points, but still nothing. I knew the drive’s head was moving because I could hear its machine gun sound at startup. So, I flipped the drive over and realized the spindle motor was not running the drive belt.

The belt appeared tight and in good condition, but the motor itself wasn’t spinning. I tried manually turning the motor, and it moved freely. So, I took a chance and tapped on the spindle motor with the back of a screwdriver. I was surprised when it moved (though erratically) on the next startup attempt. I helped the drive spin with my finger the next time, and I saw DOS Version 3.3 System Manager greeting me on the screen. I’m relieved it has worked since.

Checking the floppy drive belt and motor

I also addressed a few nit-picky details. Someone had taken the computer apart in the past and forgot one of the screws securing the floppy drive to the bottom case. I found a properly threaded #5 machine screw, but it was a bit too long, so I cut it down to size. Also, the power switch was upside down (the off symbol was on and on was off). I quickly popped it off and put it in the proper orientation.

Cutting down a #5 machine screw to secure the floppy drive
A properly oriented power switch

Now it was time for upgrades. Nearly a year ago, I purchased Steve Chamberlin’s Floppy Emu for a Mac SE/30 restoration. The Floppy Emu can emulate any Apple drive, but its neatest trick is to serve as an SD-based hard drive for an Apple II. But before this IIc could use a hard drive, the ROM had to be upgraded.

Early Apple IIc units came with ROM 255. This 16K ROM did quite a bit in a small package, but eventually, it was replaced with 32K ROMs. Upgraded ROMs can support SmartPort disks. The most common SmartPort product was Apple’s Unidisk 3.5, a handy external double-sided double-density 800K 3.5-inch floppy drive, but several third-party vendors made SmartPort compatible hard drives. This IIc (with the right ROM) could now break the 140KB disk barrier.

Hunting for the right ROM, I stumbled across Steve Buggie’s eBay post. Professor Buggie not only produces quality ROMs, he also showered me with additional Apple II material. I was blown away with helpful information, free software, and tips and tricks he voluntarily sent my way.

A bounty of bonus material accompanying an upgraded IIc ROM

With the new ROM in hand, I followed the straightforward instructions. Since the ROM size doubled, it’s necessary to make a few changes on the IIc’s logic board. Apple was well prepared for this upgrade because all you have to do is break one trace connection and solder in a different one. With that five-minute task behind me, I pulled the original ROM and inserted the new one.

Placing a solder blob on W2
Testing to ensure continuity is broken at trace W1
New ROM ready to go

Now, I decided to go the extra mile and install Big Mess ‘O Wire’s handy Internal/External Drive Switcher. This simple device allows you to select whether the IIc boots normally from the built-in 5.25 floppy, or from the external drive. The switcher has two parts, connected by two small wires. The first part plugs into the internal floppy connector, and the second part plugs into the external connector. The wires run between the two and a switch on the external connector reverses the boot order.

Internal connection providing a pass-through connection to the built-in floppy
Plugged into the external floppy connector with the switcher control wire popping out of the case

Once in place, I could flip the switch and boot the IIc from the Floppy Emu’s stash of floppy images. However, I was stuck when trying to access the hard drive images. When booting, I saw the standard greeting on the top of the screen, but nothing else happened. If I pressed Control+Open Apple+Reset, I would only get a prompt. Perplexed, I tried many different things, and surprisingly, at some point it booted! I was so excited I immediately explored the drive and started playing games. However, I wasn’t paying attention to what made it work. So a few days later, I couldn’t repeat the trick.

Eventually, I learned the switcher had to be in the default position for the hard drive image to load. I assumed it should be switched so the external drive was the boot device, but an Apple II would expect a floppy to be first, so the hard drive was expected to be a secondary device. With that understanding locked in my brain, I’ve not had a problem since.

Now that I could play games, I realized the joystick had a problem. The primary trigger button didn’t work. When pressed, there was no click. I assumed the internal switch was worn out, so I cracked it open. Once pried apart, I was relieved to see the switch was simply dislodged and no longer contacted the button. It was a simple matter to put it back into position. I also took the opportunity to clean the well-used joystick thoroughly.

The joystick trigger was dislodged
Peripherals prepped

Thirty-five years late, but I’m finally exploring the Apple II universe. The computer came with stacks of floppies. Some are productivity and graphics apps such as AppleWorks, The Newsroom, Print Shop, MousePaint, etc. and a decent number are games, including Zaxxon, Sargon III, Spy vs. Spy, Spider-Man, etc. Of course, there is also a treasure trove of content available online.

It’s liberating to use an 8-bit machine that doesn’t need pampering. With no complicated OS to corrupt and no finicky setting to tweak, the Apple IIc loads software, runs software, or writes software. One at a time. That’s it. And that’s enough.