Gateway 2000 Nomad 325SXL

Known for its cow-patterned boxes and solid yet affordable equipment, Gateway 2000 (later just Gateway) was an early staple of the PC industry. Founded in 1985, the same year as its made-to-order rival Dell Computer, Gateway grew swiftly as the personal computer transformed from a hobbyist and gaming device into an essential business tool.

The Nomad was Gateway’s first notebook computer. It was a rebadged Texas Instrument TravelMate–a relationship that lasted for a few years. Coming in either a 386SX, 486SX, or 486DX version, the Nomad was designed to support the DOS and Windows 3.1 needs of tech travelers.

This Nomad was my first laptop computer. Purchased in the summer of 1992, it was my digital companion at college. Due to its poor display, the Nomad was never great for gaming, but it was fine for writing papers, using Quicken, and accessing CompuServe.

The Nomad was among the original crop of laptop designs. Advances in the late ’80s and early ’90s moved portable computers from early luggables to the clamshell laptops still recognizable today. Some criticized the Nomad for its flimsy construction, but Compute magazine noted, “The dark, charcoal gray color and squared, no-frills styling give the Nomad a bold, handsome appearance that would be equally at home on an airline seatback tray or a boardroom conference table.”

At the time, Toshiba and Compaq were top of the class, but the Nomad was well regarded. Weighing in at 5.8 lbs and running on a 5.7Ah NiCad battery, the 11-inch by 8.5-inch by 1.8-inch device was a well-balanced road warrior. In August of ’92, PC Magazine noted, “Gateway 2000’s Nomad line is lightweight, offers excellent battery life, quality performance, and a highly competitive price.

My Nomad has an AMD Am386SXL-25 processor. It was configured with the maximum 6MB of RAM and a 83MB Seagate ST9096A hard drive. I also sprung for the optional fax/modem.

Optional 4800bps fax/modem

The VGA graphics provides 800 x 600 resolution when driving the lackluster 10-inch passive-matrix monochrome display that is theoretically capable of displaying 64 shades of gray. While the screen is challenging, there is a hardware switch that inverts black and white for better visibility. When connected to an external monitor, the Cirrus 256K graphics package displays a color resolution of 1024 x 768.

Starting at $1,995, I suspect my configuration totaled to at least $2,300 before tax and shipping. I also added the custom leather bag and a portable Canon PN48 printer (with its bag), so the total price might have pushed $3,000. A princely sum for a high school senior, but I was blessed with a lucrative after-school job that enabled me to splurge on this dream set up.

The Nomad has a unique companion: the Field Mouse. This pointing device is handy for navigating Windows 3.1 on the go. Instead of a traditional mouse that needs a desktop, this little fellow is held in the palm with a thumb manipulating the tiny trackball.

The Nomad came with Gateway’s unique “Field Mouse” for navigating Windows 3.1 on the go.
The shortened keys are removed and cleaned

I last used this computer regularly around 1995 or 1996. Since then, it has remained safely tucked away in its black leather bag. I pulled it out from time to time for a trip down memory lane, but earlier this year, when I hit the power switch, I was greeted with a beep and startup text, but the CMOS battery had died, and the hard drive was inaccessible.

I spent a considerable amount of time trying every possible cylinder, head, and sector combination to regain access to the drive. With no luck, I cracked open the case for the first time to remove the drive.

It was a challenge figuring out how the computer was put together. Flipping it over, I knew the bottom screws must be removed, but after that, it was harder to identify the various metal and plastic tabs that kept the machine together. Eventually, I released each of the cables connecting the keyboard and LCD to the mainboard. Once fully opened, I assessed the layout and realized everything would have to be removed to get to the hard drive. Once finally free, I attempted to connect it to a late ’90s desktop using a 44 pin to 40 pin IDE adapter, but with no luck.

While tearing the machine apart, I discovered a pair of 3V coin cell batteries soldered to a circuit board tucked under the keyboard wrist rest. Recognizing these as the CMOS batteries, I first tried to remove the BR1225 coin cells from the tabs attaching them to the board. Once the old batteries were pried away, I ridiculously attempted to tape a new set into place. Of course, this did not work. I soon learned I could order a fresh pair of batteries with solder tabs installed. Once they arrived, I easily desoldered the now mangled tabs and installed the new batteries.

Foolishly attempting to tape replacement coin cell batteries into place
Proper replacements CMOS batteries

Having given up on accessing the drive, I reinstalled it and put things back together. With the new CMOS batteries in place, I entered the correct time and date and left the other settings in their default configuration. After a quick reboot, I was shocked to see “Starting MS-DOS” greeting me on the screen. The hard drive was now operating perfectly. It seems the CMOS’s default hard drive type was correct; however, it would not function without a charged CMOS battery.

Not wanting to push my luck, I rushed to back up the drive. The computer had DOS 6.2 installed, so I connected a parallel cable to a Windows 95 computer and fired up Microsoft’s Intersrv to copy the whole drive to the other computer. Once finished, I explored the drive and tested the computer’s capabilities.

Using a parallel cable to copy files from the hard drive
AMD beginning to make their move competing with Intel

Norton Utilities’ System Information benchmarked the AMD Am386SXL-25 processor at just under half the speed of an Intel 386DX 33MHz machine, but the hard drive was ranked nearly twice as fast as the venerable ST251. Despite its modest speed, the computer runs Windows 3.1 without a hitch. At some point, I had removed my personal data from the computer, but it was loaded with Word for Windows, Quicken for Windows, and CompuServe Information Manager for Windows. It also has several useful utilities, including CrossTalk and WinFax Pro.

I’m guessing no one at CompuServe will answer my call.

While using the computer, I discovered the floppy drive was faulty. Once again, I opened the laptop, and then disassembled the YE-Data floppy drive. I quickly saw the problem–the spindle motor’s belt had disintegrated. This launched me on a search for a replacement drive belt. After trying half a dozen belts purchased from Console5, and even buying a second Nomad (this time a 425DXL), I could not find a belt that fit. Some were close, but they were either too loose to spin or too tight, which slowed down the mechanism. 

What little is left of the spindle motor belt
Trying a variety of replacement belts

I hoped to swap the floppy from the 425DXL (which used a Citizen drive), but I was disappointed to learn it didn’t work either. After opening the case, I found a random surface mount capacitor sitting in the case near the floppy drive. It came from the floppy’s circuit board, and I found another capacitor rattling around inside the drive. Both capacitors had leaked badly and rotted away their connection to the board. After a through cleaning, I was able to solder replacement capacitors in place. Thinking all was well, I reassembled the 425DXL and tested the floppy, but it still didn’t work. Tearing it apart again, I eventually determined that while the belt was intact, it had stretched over the years and was now too loose to spin correctly.

Now, I wait for a slow boat from China to bring a bag of assorted belts to see if I can get both floppy drives in working order. In the meantime, I will utilize a parallel cable for transferring files to the 325SXL and 425DXL.

The Nomad 325SXL was a solid computer in its day, but it meant more to me. It was my transitional device taking me from teenage computer hobbyist to college-educated tech worker. I’m glad I preserved this memento from my past and the early days of portable computing.

Compaq Deskpro 386s

Compaq was a bold and innovative company, producing some of the best computers of the 1980s. Founded by trio of former Texas Instrument employees, the company famously (and legally) reverse-engineered the IBM PC and created the first successful portable PC. After making a name for itself, Compaq pivoted to the desktop. The Deskpro line of computers was known for quality, speed, and a steep purchase price. In 1986, the Deskpro 386 was the first computer with Intel’s groundbreaking 80386 processor, ushering in the 32-bit revolution. The later Deskpro 386s, manufactured in 1988, had an updated form factor and another first–this time with Intel’s new 80386SX processor.

I was visiting a friend’s house in the mid-80s when I was introduced to his father’s Compaq Portable. It had a mysterious suitcase design and “made for business” reputation. My friend’s father worked in the Texas oil business, so I’m sure he spent his days using Lotus 1-2-3, but we took to the skies with Microsoft’s Flight Simulator.

While that Compaq was the first PC to cross my path, I eventually got an XT clone in 1987. However, I had to wait until 1990 to make a homebrew 386SX.

The Deskpro 386s was positioned as an entry-level 386, offering a 32-bit processor but running on a 16-bit data bus. This particular unit is a Model 40, with a 16MHz 80386SX processor, 4MB of RAM (located on the proprietary memory expansion card), built-in VGA graphics, a 40MB Conner hard drive, and both 3.5-inch and 5.25-inch floppies. Along with a single 9-pin serial and parallel port, the computer has two PS/2 ports for connecting a mouse and keyboard. This was an innovation, as the PS/2 interface was created the year before for IBM’s PS/2 line of computers.

The Deskpro 386s sales flyer clearly positions this system as Compaq’s attempt to best IBM’s mid-range PS/2s, such as the PS/2 Model 50. IBM’s newest 286 ran at 10MHz offering 2MB of RAM, VGA graphics, and built on the new Micro Channel Architecture. Given the competition, this Deskpro was a strong play to dominate the mid-level corporate market.

This particular computer was an eBay find. I was looking for a solid 386, and Compaq is a gold standard. The unit arrived untested and in rough condition. After opening the case, I found a number of dead spiders and a fair amount of rust. Though, I was pleased to see a well-populated memory card and a self-contained battery safely attached to the side of the case. I was also pleased to track down the general maintenance and service manual for the Deskpro 386 line and the individual spec sheet for this 386s.

The front plastic was a bit yellowed, but in decent condition. The missing blank plate covered the location of the optional tape backup unit.
After blowing out the case and taking an inventory, it looked good, except for obvious rusting.
Everything except the bottom case laid out for inspection.

The first order of business was to completely tear down the computer, cleaning as I went. I was particularly interested in the custom power supply, as it would be difficult to source a replacement. After cracking open the PSU, I had concerns. One of the electrolytic capacitors was bulging and there was corrosion around it. Also, the PCB had burned near a thick-film metal glaze power resistor.

Bulging electrolytic capacitor on the proprietary power supply.
Scorched circuit board around a power resistor.
More signs of significant heat from the power resistor on the back of the PCB.

The capacitor was easily replaced, though I had to use non-conductive paint to repair the damage caused by the corrosion. The hot resistor was a bit more complicated. After researching the issue, I suspected the resistor might be working as expected, but it was simply too close to the less-heat tolerant circuit board. Therefore, I removed the resistor and re-soldered it a bit higher from the PCB and placed heat-resistant kapton tape under the reinstalled component.

I was finally ready to power it on. The power supply utilizes a proprietary connector, and I was unable to find the connector’s pinout information. Therefore, I plugged it in to the motherboard, added one of the drives so there was a reasonable load on the PSU, and I held my breath. Unfortunately, my test only resulted in a periodically flashing LED on the motherboard and a simultaneous flash of the floppy drive’s activity light. Checking with my multimeter, I found odd and varying voltages, but the most common reading was 30V–hardly what was expected.

Given the propriety design, and lacking any detailed technical documentation, I was uncertain whether the problem was with the PSU or the motherboard. After setting the project aside for awhile, I took to eBay and found another Compaq Deskpro 386s available for parts. I was watching the item, but the “Buy Now” price was too high for me. After some time, the seller noted my interest and offered to sell me the computer at half the asking price. I jumped on the offer, and now had two questionable Deskpro 386s computers.

The second computer was rustier than the first, but the front plastic was in better condition. It lacked a hard drive and had less RAM, but was otherwise very similar. According to dates on various components, it appeared to be manufactured a few months after the first Deskpro.

A second Deskpro 386s arrives
Testing with the second power supply

The power supply from the second computer had slightly different markings, but otherwise looked identical. I resumed my testing with the second PSU and found the same results. Feeling frustrated, I pulled the second computer’s motherboard from its case and connected it to the PSU, floppy drive, and speaker. Instead of a blinking LED, I heard long and short beeps of the PC speaker and saw normal activity from the floppy drive. I swapped the second PSU for the repaired unit and got the same results. So, both power supplies operated normally, but the original motherboard has a fault. Perhaps the surface-mount tantalum capacitors near the power supply connector were the problem, but that repair can wait.

I was finally ready to reassemble the computer, picking the best parts available from either computer as I went, but first I had to deal with the rust. I had learned of the benefits of fallout remover from Adrian Black’s YouTube video. I stripped the machine down to bare metal, taped off stickers or markings, and applied the smelly Iron Free compound one piece at a time. I watched as the yellow chemical turned rust into a wine color. After a few minutes, I wiped the pieces dry.

After the fallout treatment, if necessary, I sanded the treated spots until I saw clean metal and then prepared to paint. For the inside of the case, I selected Krylon’s Fusion Matte Glacier Gray spray paint. This provided a fresh and clean look to the inside components. For the exterior top and sides of the case, I used Krylon’s Satin Almond, but the color was a bit warmer than I hoped. Matte Clamshell was an alternative I also considered.

I addressed rust on various ports and small components, but with the power supply reinstalled, I added the motherboard and was pleased with the clean and shinny computer coming together on my bench.

Rust gets everywhere, but luckily is fairly ease to remove.
Fine grain sand paper usually does the job and rusty screws get soaked in vinegar.
Factory fresh after cleaning, rust remediation, and painting.

Luckily, I was able to secure the appropriate blank face plate from the second Deskpro, and I cleaned and lubricated the floppy drives. The battery was the last hardware detail. While I was able to find a new replacement Tadiran 3.6V battery, it took me awhile to notice the pins were not the same. With a little fiddling, I was able to move the red wire next to the black, matching the pins on the motherboard.

The drive stack looks good.
Original and replacement 3.7V batteries

While hardware is fun to tinker with, computers are built to run software. Before I could do that I had to configure the system. I was able to find the spec sheet describing the motherboard DIP switches, but kindly Compaq also posts such pertinent information on the inside panel of the computer. While this computer is more sophisticated than earlier XT computers, it does not have a boot-configurable BIOS. Compaq’s early computers are setup through a floppy-based configuration utility. Luckily, this software is still available online along with Compaq’s OEM version of DOS 3.31, complete with customized setup and utility applications.

After some trial and error, I confirmed all 4MBs of the RAM were working; then I moved on to the hard drive. In another first, Compaq was the first to support IDE hard drives. The Conner hard drive in this 386s appeared to be in good condition. After making the appropriate Type 43 selection with the configuration software, I was happy to see “Starting MS-DOS…” on the Model 470A Compaq VGA Color Monitor.

The computer appears to have been used in an elementary school classroom. DOS 6.22 was installed and the hard drive’s well-organized contents consisted exclusively of age-appropriate educational titles, except for a stock version of Windows 3.1. The hard drive runs fine, but the spinning platters sound a bit odd each time the computer starts. For that reason, I decided to install a Compact Flash adapter with a 256MB card. The provided IDE cable is a custom length, barely long enough to stretch from the motherboard to the single hard drive. I attempted to replace the cable with a longer one capable of connecting both the Conner drive and the Compact Flash adapter, but I was unable to get either drive to work unless I used Compaq’s provided cable. I don’t understand how the cable could be customized, but at the moment, I am only able to use the short cable to connect one drive at a time to the onboard controller.

Thankfully, with the help of an XTIDE card, I could install the Compact Flash card as a second drive and backup the original Conner drive. Installing XTIDE was tricky. After much mucking around, I finally discovered the XTIDE needed the latest IDE_386 binary file flashed to its EEPROM and block mode must be disabled for the legacy drive to reliably copy files.

Compaq Deskpro 386s Model 40 with a Model 470A VGA color monitor and somewhat newer Compaq speakers, keyboard, and mouse.

Compaq was a standout among IBM-clone manufactures. In its early days, the company was rightfully regarded for its innovation and quality. Thankfully, this computer was well-made and is reliable once more. I am proud to own an early Compaq, as it characterizes the spirit and promise of the early PC era.

Dell Dimension V333c

Restoring vintage computers is certainly nostalgic, but it is also therapeutic. It feels good to clean something dirty, restore something old, and improve something so it lasts. I have a long history with this early Celeron computer; so awakening it from its long slumber was particularly satisfying.

I bought this computer in December 1998 as a Christmas gift for my parents. It replaced the home-built 386 I assembled as a teenager. Now a college graduate with my first “real” job, I was proud to provide them a significant technology upgrade.

When Dell created the Dimension V333c, it was was a great value at an important time in PC history. The race between Intel, AMD, and Cyrix was neck and neck, and Intel was trying to upend the market with its Pentium line of processors. While the original Pentiums (P5s) were a decent upgrade from the 486 processors, the architecture noticeably matured with the Pentium II (P6) systems.

Intel’s Celeron was a low-end Pentium II, with the front-side bus limited to 66MHz, and little to no L2 processor cache. The processor in the V333c is a second generation Medocino Celeron using Intel’s 440BX chipset and running at 333MHz with 32KB of L1 and 128KB of L2 cache available for the processor.

The V333c was released a few months after Microsoft’s Windows 98, and Dell’s reasonable price and well-rounded configuration attracted attention.

I rediscovered this system in early 2019. It had been in storage for many years, and I could have formed a full-sized rabbit from the dust bunnies inside. After a thorough cleaning, I replaced the battery, tested the power supply, and powered it on. It booted to Dell’s A08 BIOS without issue. The original Maxtor hard drive still worked, though the system struggled under the weight of the later installed Windows 2000 operating system. To give it a performance boost, I replaced the spinning drive with an IDE to CompactFlash adapter and upgraded the RAM from the stock 64MB to the maximum 384MB .

Completely disassembled, cleaned, and reassembled.
Fresh battery installed with no damage from the original coin cell

The installation of the CompactFlash adapter was fairly straightforward once I realized the BIOS would not recognize a large drive. Going with an 8GB card worked fine. Once the fast and capable drive was installed, I loaded Windows 98 SE and luckily could still find the necessary device drivers on Dell’s support site.

CompactFlash hard drive replacement.

Built during a transitional time, the motherboard has two legacy 16-bit ISA expansion slots along with three PCI slots. It sports a 3.5-inch floppy, a 32X CD-ROM, and a Iomega Zip drive. Connectivity was available through traditional serial, parallel, and PS/2 ports, but also includes two USB connectors and built-in 10/100 Ethernet. The video system has an SXGA-capable ATI Rage Pro AGP 2X controller with 8MB of SDRAM. Sound is handled by the onboard MIDI, OPL3, and Sound Blaster Pro-compatible Yamaha YMF724 audio controller.

To enhance its “in-between” usefulness, I tried unsuccessfully to install at 5.25-inch floppy drive in an empty drive bay. Unfortunately, the BIOS would not recognize a second floppy, and installing an ISA-based floppy controller only resulted in frustration. However, I’ve not given up hope, as it would be helpful to access 5.25, 3.5, Zip, and CD-ROM media in one machine.

Running Microsoft Office 97 Standard Edition
Playing 688 Attack Sub in DOS mode

The V333c was a well-regarded, value-based home system in its day, and the computer’s versatility and dependable components have enabled it to stand the test of time.